|—||Edward Grey, July 1914|
Today marks the 100th anniversary of the start of the war that killed Europe’s spirit.
Carl Gustav Carus（German, 1789-1869）
Nebelwolken in der Sächsischen Schweiz （Clouds of Fog in Saxon Switzerland） 1828
Carl Gustav Carus “Hünengrab mit ruhendem Wanderer”, 1819/20
Faust’s Dream, by Carl Gustav Carus (1789-1869).
Carus was a many-sided man, being not only an artist but also a doctor, a naturalist, a scientist, and a psychologist. He studied oil painting under Caspar David Friedrich, and would later continue his studies under Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld. He is well-known among scientists for originally conceiving of the idea of the vertebrate archetype, a seminal idea in Darwin’s theory of evolution. He would also provide consider inspiration to Carl Jung’s hypotheses on the unconscious mind.
Carus died in Dresden, in 1869.
Carl Gustav Carus (3 January 1789 – 28 July 1869) was a German physiologist and painter, born in Leipzig, who played various roles during the Romantic era. A friend of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, he was a many-sided man: a doctor, a naturalist, a scientist, a psychologist, and a landscape painter who studied under Caspar David Friedrich. -wikipedia
n 1811 he graduated as a doctor of medicine and a doctor of philosophy. In 1814 he was appointed professor of obstetrics and director of the maternity clinic at the teaching institution for medicine and surgery in Dresden. He wrote on art theory. From 1814 to 1817 he taught himself oil painting working under Caspar David Friedrich, a Dresden landscape painter. He had already taken drawing lessons from Julius Diez and subsequently studied under Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld at the Oeser drawing academy.
He is best known to scientists for originating the concept of the vertebrate archetype, a seminal idea in the development of Darwin’s theory of evolution. In 1836, he was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Carus is also noted for Psyche (1846).
Although various philosophers, among them Leibniz, Kant, and Schelling, had already pointed very clearly to the problem of the dark side of the psyche, it was a physician who felt impelled, from his scientific and medical experience, to point to the unconscious as the essential basis of the psyche. This was C. G. Carus, the authority whom Eduard von Hartmann followed. (Jung  1969, par. 259)
Carus died in Dresden.
Portada revista Hermandad
An Maschinengewehr MG.34 team during ‘Operation Barbarossa’ in Rogachev (Rahačoŭ, Belarus). July,1941.
Knight’s Cross winner SS-Sturmbannführer Christian Tychsen won the award in March 1943 while commanding II. Abteilung, SS-Panzer-Regiment 2 of the ‘Das Reich’ Division and in October that year received the Oak Leaves to the Knight’s Cross. Wounded at least nine times, he was killed-in-action in Normandy while deputy divisional CO during July 1944.
Russian civilians greet their German Liberator. Russia,July 1941.
A Waffen SS soldier gives an injured Soviet infantryman a drink of water, 1943, July, USSR
SS-Untersturmführer as Kurt Peters of III.Battalion/SS-Panzergrenadier-Regiment 37 (17.SS-Panzergrenadier-Division Götz von Berlichingen)
During and after the war.
“A convoy carrying 1/506th troops paused for a rest break. Other troops had rounded-up some prisoners, who were standing at the side of the highway. Amongst them was a haughty-looking SS Sgt, wearing the double runic lightning flash collar patch. Judging from the amount of wear and dirt on the tab, the sgt was probably a veteran/survivor of many battles. Robert Wiatt of C/506th wanted to find out just how tough the SS Sgt really was. He walked over, drew his M-3 trench knife from his ankle and held it to the German’s throat. As he did that, his buddy Ken Parker ran around behind the German and grasped his arms. The SS trooper maintained his calm and remained standing at attention, staring straight ahead. Wiatt used his knife to remove the collar patch for a souvenir.”
Image taken in Notre-Dame-de-Cenilly, South West of Saint-Lô, between July 27 – 29 1944 by Robert Capa.
It was the fifth year of the Second World War; and despite military setbacks on several fronts, the German Reich stood firm amidst the onslaught of powerful adversaries from the East, as well as the West.
Earlier in this year, at the Casablanca Conference in January 1943, the Allies demanded the “unconditional surrender” of the Axis Powers as the only way to cease the hostilities. Needless to say, the Reich dismissed this demand and vowed to fight on until the “Endsieg”, the final victory, has been achieved. Since the armies of the Reich remained a force to be reckoned with, it was thus decided to deliberately strike at the civilian population of Germany by means of “moral bombing”, from the air.
It was then that Operation Gomorrah, devised by the British war criminal Air Chief Marshal Arthur Harris, was launched against Hamburg, starting on 24 July, 1943.
Never before in the history of Aerial Warfare was a scheme more hideous and outrageous put into action, than in the course and aftermath of the seven bombing raids conducted by the Royal Air Force, until the 3rd of August, 1943. The planners of Operation Gomorrah designed a giant firestorm, caused by phosphorous bombs, among others, that devoured tens of thousands of civilians in Hamburg indiscriminately — the men, as well as the women, the young, as well as the elders. Not only should German civilians feel unprotected and vulnerable in their cities far away from the battlefields, but they should actually pay the price for supporting Adolf Hitler and his National Socialist Government. They paid this price in blood, fire, and death. With their homes torched and burnt to the ground; with their limbs broken and their lives lost: they remained defiant still, even in the face of the terror from above. Once the smoke cleared and the fires were extinguished, the survivors put up banners that read: “Unsere Mauern brachen, aber unsere Herzen nicht!”. Our walls broke, but our hearts did not. That was their answer to Bomber Harris and his minions. And thus the “morale bombing” continued until the final days of the war; killing another tens of thousands of innocent civilians but never, ever once achieving the collapse of morale on the ground.
In the end, the Reich was vanquished. But it was not defeated. It’s not a Reich of this world anymore; it’s now one that solely exists in our hearts and dreams and is nowhere else to be found, in our day and age. Operation Gomorrah has torn down the walls of Hamburg, but it failed to break the hearts of those who suffered through the firestorm — and survived. They refused to surrender; and 70 years later, we do the same. The Reich, to whom we too pledge allegiance, lives on. In our hearts, that will never break. There it remains with us, eternally. Sacred and Invincible.